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Penile Injection Therapy Backgrounder - Penile injection therapy was discovered fortuitously. In 1980, the French physician Ronald Virag reported that during penile surgery, he inadvertently injected an anesthetized patient in the wrong part of the penis with papaverine - a substance derived from the opium poppy. The resulting relaxation of the smooth muscle of the penile arterial walls created an unexpected two-hour erection. This mistake prompted serious research into the use of injectable medications to relieve ED. Around the same time, Giles Brindley, a British physiologist and research scientist, discovered that injecting the drug phenoxybenzamine into the corpora cavernosa of the penis could produce an erection within minutes. At a meeting in Paris in 1984, New York urologist Dr. Adrian Zorgniotti presented his first case studies of self-injection utilizing a combination of papaverine and phentolamine. The latter drug blocks the action of neurotransmitters that cause vasoconstriction, causing the smooth muscles of the penis to relax. Two years later, Japanese researchers presented evidence that injecting the drug prostaglandin E-1 produced powerful erections. Slowly, news of the favorable results with the injectable medication began to spread within the small international community of urologists who were treating ED. Most began utilizing all three (papaverine, phentolamine, and prostaglandin E-1) in what was referred to as "trimix." Simple remedies to avoid erectile dysfunction in diabetes: What better, Viagra or Cialis? brand viagra online sale Pediatric aIstituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milano, Italia; Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)